Рубрика: Интересное, Полезности грамматики, Слова

Extreme adjectives in English — Экстремальные (утрированные) прилагательные в английском языке

Сегодня я хочу предложить Вам одну из часто употребляемых тем в разговорной речи — экстремальные прилагательные в английском языке. Это такая утрированная форма обычного прилагательного во избежание повторяющегося «очень» и для расширения нашего словарного запаса.

Для примера рассмотрим варианты использования часто используемых прилагательных в следующей картинке

Левый столбец показывает обычные прилагательные, правый — соответственно их экстремальный вариант.

Если посмотреть подробнее, то Вам видно, что просто интересную книгу (interesting) можно заменить на захватывающую (fascinating), если таковой она является.

Часто мы уставшие (tiring), а иногда чувствуем настоящую изможденность (exhausting).

Некоторые шутки просто смешные (funny) и только совсем немногие могут похвастаться уморительными шутками (hilarious).

К прилагательному good можно найти несколько экстремальных вариантов, но если мы будем говорить об уме, то здесь будет уместно употребить блестящий (brilliant)

А вот к внешности Вы смело можете применить как просто привлекательный (good-looking) так и шикарный (gorgeous). Любая женщина будет польщена, если Вы используете gorgeous в отношении ее внешности.

Степень страха тоже может быть разной — просто пугающее событие (frightening) или действительно ужасающий фильм (terrifying).

Если с плохим (bad) все понятно, то прилагательное ужасный (awful) используется часто и во многих жизненных ситуациях, awful film, awful food, etc.

Многие события нашей жизни могут быть памятными (memorable) , но не каждое может быть поистине незабываемым (unforgettable).

Никто не хочет быть злым (angry) и никто не застрахован от настоящей ярости (furious). Собственно именно с этого экстремального прилагательного и пошла традиция разъяренную женщину называть фурией 😉

И крайнее, но не последнее в нашем списке это неприятный (unpleasant) или даже отвратительный вариант (disgusting). Несмотря на негативный подтекст, экстремальный вариант используется широко.

Это конечно же не окончательный список экстремальных прилагательных, но однозначно самых употребляемых. Самое полезное будет составить с ними или устойчивые выражения или короткие предложения ассоциации с прилагательными.

Удачи в запоминании!) Оставляйте комментарии, задавайте вопросы, буду рада помочь.

 

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Рубрика: Интересное, Полезности грамматики, Слова

Idioms — letter A

Idiom

Apple of my eye

Meaning

a person who is treasure for somebody

Example
My little son is an apple of my eye

Young Mother and her Son Picking Apple

As high as a kite

To feel excited about something

I’m as high as a kite cause I have never seen Atlantic ocean before

kite

At the drop of the hat

Immediately

I asked him for help and he came to me at the drop of the hat

drop-of-a-hat

A slap on the wrist

A light punishment

I thought that dad would be angry with me when I came late yesterday. But I got a slap on the wrist

slap on the wrist

 

Рубрика: Бизнес английский, Интересное, Слова

Как составить деловое письмо на английском?

writing-a-letter

Для составления грамотного делового письма на английском желательно знать необходимые шаблоны фраз, упрощающих написание этих самых писем.

  1. Письмо как правило начинается с приветствия, которое немного различается в зависимости от того, кому мы пишем.

а) Dear Sir or Madam — Dear Sirs

Используется такой вариант в том случае, если Вы не знаете к кому обращаетесь, это может быть новая компания.

б) Dear Mr.White (Ms.White, Mrs.White)

Официальное обращение к человеку по фамилии, высказывая уважение и сохраняя при этом дистанцию. Это может совсем недавно появившийся клиент и официальная структура, где принято такое обращение.

в) Dear Ms.Mary

Такое обращение к адресату по имени возможно при более близком деловом знакомстве.

г) Dear Kate

Распространненая практика при обращении к давнему знакомому, коллеге или другу.

2. Желательно сослаться на предыдущий контакт, если он был и обязательно поблагодарить. Если у нас благодарность обычно выражается за что-то, то для англоговорящих это норма и проявление уважения.

а) Thank you for your message. – Спасибо за ваше сообщение.

б) With reference to your phone call/ letter of (дата)/ —  в отношении вашего телефонного звонка/ письма (такого-то числа)

в) In accordance (in conformity) with your request – В соответствии с вашей просьбой…

г) Further to our conversation/ telephone talk… — В продолжение нашей беседы/ телефонного разговора и т.д.

3. После вступления можно приступить к делу и обьяснить цель Вашего письма. При этом деловое письмо использует формулировку МЫ, так как обычно переписка ведется от лица компании. И в одном письме может быть одно или несколько нижеуказанных фраз-шаблонов.

а) We apologize for— Мы приносим свои извинения за …

б) We confirm that… — Мы подтверждаем, что …

в) We would like to clarify… — Мы бы хотели прояснить…

г) We kindly ask you to — Мы любезно просим вас…

д) We hereby inform you Настоящим уведомляем вас …

Также можно использовать формальные связки как на картинке ниже:

formal connections

4. В завершении письма следует указать Ваши ответные действия или адресата и снова высказать благодарность. Например:

а) If you have any questions, please send them directly to me. – Как всегда, если у вас есть какие-то вопросы, пожалуйста, обращайтесь прямо ко мне.

б) Thank you and I am looking forward to hearing from you. – Спасибо и жду ответа от вас.

в) Thanking in advance. – Заранее благодарю.

г) Please contact us again if we can help in any way. – Пожалуйста, обращайтесь к нам еще, если мы сможем вам помочь любым образом.

5. Завершаем письмо своей подписью. В русских официальных письмах всё заканчивается стандартно: «С уважением, …». В английском языке принято говорить «искренне Ваш». Тут тоже существует несколько вариантов.

signature in business letters

 

 

 

 

 

 

Надеюсь статья была полезной, оставляйте свои комментарии на странице отзывов по этой ссылке

Thank you very much in advance,

Your sincerely,

Tatyana Laktionova

Рубрика: Интересное, Слова

Superfood — Honey

honey

HONEY

An amazing natural product made by bees from the nectar of flowers, honey has been used for centuries not only as food but also as a home remedy for many medical ailments and injuries (травмы). It is thought that honey never spoils (портится) or goes bad. With age, it may dry (сухой) and become crystallized, but it can be brought back to a usable state with correctly applied heat (нагревание). Jars (банка)  of honey dating as far back as 5,000 years have been found in the tombs of pharaohs in the Egyptian pyramids; they are believed to still be usable.

Honey does not have many natural nutrients, although many types of honey do contain some traces of minerals depending on the plants they are produced from. Some types may also contain some fiber (клетчатка) or protein; however, honey is mostly a product of natural sugars.

honey1

Because it is so high in natural sugars, honey is often used in cooking and baking as an alternative to processed sugar. Some home remedies for coughs (кашель) suggest adding honey to warm tea or water, especially for children who may be sensitive (чувствительный) to cough syrups and medications. It can also be used to sweeten children’s medicine. For minor injuries (повреждения), cuts (порезы), and burns (ожоги), honey has long been used to treat wounds (лечить раны), as it has natural antiseptic properties. However, it is not recommended as a long-term remedy (лечебное средство) or a replacement (замена) for modern medical care.

Some people also believe that consuming locally-produced honey can help people who suffer (страдает) from seasonal allergies to local plant life; it is thought that the limited intake (ограниченное потребление внутрь) of honey made from these pollens (пыльца) can help allergy sufferers build an immunity to the plant pollen causing the allergy. While research (исследование) varies and results show that honey can be helpful for some ailments, scientists are still studying this ancient (древний) natural wonder to discover (открывать новое) all the ways it can be useful (полезный) to people.

Рубрика: Интересное, Слова

Interview with Angelina Jolie

Video script:
 Angelina Jolie, lovely to meet you.
 And you.
Can you tell me who or what Maleficent is? Who is she?
She is a  I think she was described in the original book as an ugly fairy.
That’s not really you though.
Well thank you.
00:19 So you had to ugly yourself up?
She’s a little  She’s not pretty. She’s something. Yeah, she’s somebody who, in our story, she was born to quite an  She’s quite on fire and aggressive about defending her land but all for good reasons. She kind of had a lot of good in her and she faces abuse and she turns and she becomes Maleficent as we know her.
She’s scary but she’s also quite alluring as well. So, I don’t know how much of that you wanted to come across. I know you had quite a hand in the costume. You were quite passionate about the way she looked. So were the horns and things your idea?
Well the horns are from the original. So much of her was just from the original and I think we just wanted to make sure  My big note to wardrobe and costume was to not basically turn her into somebody else and to give her new costumes. And we found these great men. We went online and found great leather-workers and people you did these more elegant fetish clothes and brought them in so they could play with her.
01:35 That was the first and last time you went to those kind of websites, as well I’m sure. Well, for ten years maybe. Now, the accent. You’ve done English accents before but this one is very, very Downton Abbey and quite wonderful.
Oh, thank you.
Now, how much of that did you do when you were, like ordering pizza. I’ll have a meatball marinara at Subway.
I studied great English theatre actresses and I just listened to the way they just enjoy words so much. The American voice is so flat and we don’t really, we don’t really enjoy language and so it was nice to have an accent for her that just indulges in everything she says and the way she says it as well.
Absolutely. Did you try to get into English traditions? I’m talking about Earl Grey tea or Radio 4’s Today program or Midsommer Murders. Have you seen that show? Or Johnathan Creek?
 No. No, should I?
I think you should. I think you’d like British TV, yeah. It’s funny.
 I like BBC.
It’s idiosyncratic and stuff. When you’re making a big Epic like this and there’s lots of special effects, I was asking Elle, do you cringe a tiny bit when you’re trying to act all epic when you’re surrounded by just a green screen in the background. Because it just feels very mechanical.
 I think one of the funniest things for me was that I couldn’t see my magic. So you kind of do this but you don’t know what you’re doing because you don’t know what’s coming out of your hands and they could put, like, little rabbits if they wanted to, so you don’t know. So that was weird, because you have no idea what’s 
03:15 And it’s silent, as well, isn’t it?
It’s silent and it’s empty and you’re whirling around a bunch of green something or, well, nothing really. You’re playing with nothing.
And, of course, your daughter Vivienne’s in it as well. Spectacular. Do you think she’ll get a bit diva-y in her next movie? Do you think she’ll want a trailer and-
Yeah, I think she was heading in that direction.
Did all your family come down and support you? Was it quite nice to see mummy and daughter?
–Yeah, yeah, they were there. Well they’re there on set basically everyday anyway, so. They home school so they’re there when I’m working and they have fun. But they find her very funny. Her siblings have seen it and they think she’s the funniest thing in the film.
Рубрика: Интересное, Слова

The Cinematograph — краткая история кинематогрофа — часть 2

1

                                       The Birth of Hollywood

By 1905, five-cent movie theatres called “Nickelodeons” provided an affordable (доступный) way for people of all walks of life to enjoy motion pictures. Whereas traditional theater was often associated, rightly or wrongly, with the upper crust (верхний слой) of society, cinema remained (оставаться) a working man’s art form. Regional film industries flourished across the world, with each enjoying modest (скромный) success. The First World War (1914-1918) produced some of the earliest examples of propaganda films to boost (способствовать росту) morale at home and overseas. But it wasn’t until the post-war economic boom of the 1920s that the film industry really hit its stride. (большой сдвиг)

The sun shines in Los Angeles, California for almost 80% of the days in a year. More sunshine means more shooting days (дни съемок) , faster productions, and lower costs. Little wonder, then, that LA became the home of a young industry on a seemingly (кажущийся) endless (бесконечный) upward trajectory. From 1912 onward, the Hollywood neighborhood became home to several movie studios: huge plots of buildings and land with stockpiles (резервы) of men and materials needed to mount (возрастать) massive productions.

The original Big 5 studios were Warner Brothers Pictures, Paramount, RKO (Radio-Keith-Orpheum), MGM (Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer), and 20th Century Fox. Each of the Big 5 owned expansive lots for productions as well as many theaters to exhibit films to the paying public. The second tier (ряд) of studios included Universal Pictures, United Artists, and Columbia Pictures. Lesser studios included Monogram, Republic, and the animation studio Walt Disney Pictures.

2

One of the first major Hollywood films was the Civil War epic Birth of a Nation, produced by DW Griffiths. With a runtime over three hours, the film was a monster. It was also controversial (спорный) for its overtly racist messages. At this time, motion pictures still lacked (не хватает) sound. Films often included title cards with written dialogue to explain important plot elements. Otherwise, stories were conveyed (передавать) visually. To set the mood for each scene, silent films were accompanied (сопровождать) by live music ranging from alone pianist to a full orchestra.

By the 1920s, Hollywood was the fifth largest industry in the United States. It was around this time that the area became known as Tinseltown because of the glitz (блеск, мишура) and glamor closely associated with the Roaring Twenties period. Movies made studio heads and producers extremely rich. The director developed into the most prominent (выделяющийся) “behind the scenes” production role, while the idea of “movie stars” brought many actors and actresses great fame and fortune. Following the First World War, European filmmakers like Fritz Lang, Alfred Hitchcock, and Jean Renoir arrived in Hollywood to collaborate (сотрудничать) with homegrown talent.

By the mid-20s, engineers from Warner Brothers-owned Vitaphone had developed a way to sync audio recordings with motion pictures. Movies now included what is considered diagetic (аутентичный) and non-diagetic sound. Diаgetic sound includes the sounds of the story’s physical world—specifically, dialogue and all sounds the characters can theoretically hear. Non-diegetic sound refers to sounds the characters would be unaware (неосведомленный) of, such as the film’s soundtrack.

3

The arrival of “talkies” put many silent era actors out of business, either because they lacked strong voices or they could not remember their lines. With sound to boost the story, directors could explore more complex angles (углы) and editing (монтажные) techniques. Cinematography, the composing of motion pictures, gained recognition (добиться признания) as a major form of art. Film crews organized and their hierarchy developed into the format we know today.

With the combined might of sound and picture to tell stories, cinema was entering a phase of unprecedented (беспрецендетный) growth as 1930 loomed closer. The film industry had survived infancy (ранняя стадия развития, младенчество) and was now moving into adolescence (подростковый возраст). Hollywood’s Golden Age was about to begin.

 

Рубрика: Интересное, Слова

The Cinematograph — краткая история кинематогрофа — часть 1

cinematograph

The film industry is a good reminder that art and business are more closely related than we might think. It’s also important to remember that without steady advances in science and technology, “the movies” would not exist. Now, nearly 130 years after the first film premiered to audiences, perhaps that three-way intersection of art, commerce, and science is what makes cinema so compelling.

Most historians consider the 1890s to be the birth of the motion picture. Photography had existed for several decades at this point, and two French brothers named Auguste and Louis Lumiere were instrumental in developing new techniques and processes to improve cameras and film stock. In 1894, the Lumieres were invited to Paris to witness a demonstration of the peephole kinetoscope, a new invention by the American Thomas Edison. The kinetoscope was a revolutionary camera that produced the illusion of moving photographs. This illusion is based on two optical phenomena:

Persistence of vision: The brain’s tendency to “retain images cast upon the retina of the eye for a fraction of a second beyond their disappearance from the field of sight.”

Phi phenomenon: The illusion of movement between images when they succeed each other rapidly.

lumier

Edison’s kinetoscope was groundbreaking, but it only allowed one person to view the moving image (via the “peephole”) at any given time. The device was also so huge that it could not be easily moved. The Lumieres envisioned film exhibition on a grander scale and set out to create their own motion picture camera. The result was the cinematographe, where we get the term cinema.

Filming 16 frames (pictures) per second, the cinematographe was lightweight, portable, and allowed the Lumieres to film scenes both indoors and outside. Because of its mobility, the cinematographe became extremely popular in Europe, Japan, Russia, and across the rest of the globe. The cinematographe’s success encouraged Thomas Edison and the Americans to design new cameras in order to compete.

Initially, movies were novelty items. Most “films” involved a single shot of something happening, like a train pulling into a station. These films were described as “magical demonstrations” mostly shown at vaudeville theatres, carnivals, and in circus tents. Audiences loved these shows, and there was a lot of money to be made for the exhibitionists.

By the end of the decade, there was a shift in thinking about motion pictures. Filmmakers began to explore the medium as a platform for storytelling rather than a “magical” gimmick. French filmmaker Georges Melies was one of the pioneers of multiscene films that introduced characters and narrative storylines. Melies was prolific—he is credited with making over 500 films.

Melies was a major influence on Edwin S. Porter, an American filmmaker whose 1903 film The Great Train Robbery was a runaway success. Porter had achieved realistic continuity editing, which is the practice of framing and cutting a motion picture to appear seamless. The goal of continuity editing is to trick the audience into forgetting they’re watching a series of still photographs and instead allow the film’s story to captivate viewers

great robbery

Even though cinema was in its infancy, its boundaries were constantly expanding thanks to the creativity and scientific genius of its early adopters. Now that movies could tell stories to large audiences, artists and businessmen realized the opportunities of a motion picture industry. Production studios sprang up everywhere in France and across the world. But no region was to become as important to the development of the burgeoning film industry as a sleepy Los Angeles suburb: Hollywood, USA.

Vocabulary:

to exist — существовать

perhaps — возможно

nearly — около

compelling — привлекательный

to consider — считать, учитывать

to improve — улучшать

invention — изобретение

Persistence of vision — инерция зрительного восприятия

beyond — посреди

to retain — сдерживать

disappearance — исчезновение

sight — взгляд

allowed- разрешенный

to envision — представлять

set out— выставлять

to encourage — вдохновлять

Initially — первоначально

to involve — вовлекать

gimmick — уловка, ухищрение

narrative — сюжетный

prolific — плодотворный

to achieve — достигать

seamless — бесшовный

to trick — жульничать

boundaries — границы

opportunities— возможности, шансы

П.С.

оранжевый цвет -существительное

зеленый — наречие, предлог

синий — глагол

фиолетовый — прилагательное

Рубрика: Интересное, Слова

Greatest cities throughout history — Jericho: the world’s largest city in 7000 BC

jericho

Jericho has existed for over 10,000 years, earning the title of being the oldest city in the world. While 2,000 people may not seem like many now, that was the population in Jericho in 7000 B.C., when Jericho was the largest city in existence. Having that many people in one location was a feat because, at that time, having too many people in one place often meant running out of vital resources like food and water.

However, Jericho’s location between the Dead Sea and Mount Nebo created a natural irrigation system from the Jordan River. This system allowed the citizens to grow the crops needed to sustain Jericho’s people without worrying about overpopulation. In fact, the agricultural surplus allowed others to move from the fields and specialize in other areas, such as politics and religion. Merchants and artisans likely also developed in Jericho.

Although the city did not have it when it was first established, Jericho was well-known for its surrounding wall. The wall reached about 15 feet wide and over 10 feet high, and it had stone towers that were about 25 feet high. The wall was built for protection against enemies and, presumably, to help prevent flooding. It was sloped as well, which made scaling it very difficult.

This wall was also the feature of a well-known biblical story in the book of Joshua. The story goes that the Israelite people had just crossed the Jordan River and entered the land of Canaan. They believed that this land was promised to them by God, but the city of Jericho prevented them from taking it. In the story, the Israelites simply had to walk around the wall chanting and blowing trumpets for several days and the wall would fall. They did this, and the wall fell, and they took the city, burning it and its inhabitants to the ground. The story also states that Joshua “cursed” anyone who would try to rebuild the city. Nonetheless, the population of Jericho is about 19,000 as of the early 2000s.

Vocabulary:

feat — подвиг, искусство;

vital resources — жизненно важные ресурсы;

natural irrigation system — естественная система орошения;

to sustain — подкреплять, поддержать;

overpopulation — перенаселение;

Merchants — торговцы;

established — утвержден, установлен;

presumably — предположительно;

prevent flooding — предотвратить потоп

scaling  -вычисление размеров, взвешивание;

blowing trumpets — дудеть в трубы;

inhabitants — жители;

Nonetheless — тем не менее.